Critique the various theories of intelligence presented. Which theory do you believe is the best for determining intelligence? Which type of intelligence s do you possess?
The ability to speak and write well Logico-mathematical The ability to use logic and mathematical skills to solve problems Spatial The ability to think and reason about objects in three dimensions Musical The ability to perform and enjoy music Kinesthetic body The ability to move the body in sports, dance, or other physical activities Interpersonal The ability to understand and interact effectively with others Intrapersonal The ability to have insight into the self Naturalistic The ability to recognize, identify, and understand animals, plants, and other living things Source: Adapted from Gardner, H.
Multiple intelligences for the 21st century.
The idea of multiple intelligences has been influential in the field of education, and teachers have used these ideas to try to teach differently to different students. For instance, to teach math problems to students who have particularly good kinesthetic intelligence, a teacher might encourage the students to move their bodies or hands according to the numbers.
And there is no clear conclusion about how many intelligences there are. Are sense of humor, artistic skills, dramatic skills, and so forth also separate intelligences? Furthermore, and again demonstrating the underlying power of a single intelligence, the many different intelligences are in fact correlated and thus represent, in part, g Brody, Standardization and the Intelligence Quotient The goal of most intelligence tests is to measure g, the general intelligence factor.
Good intelligence tests are reliable, meaning that they are consistent over time, and also demonstrate construct validity, meaning that they actually measure intelligence rather than something else. Because intelligence is such an important individual difference dimension, psychologists have invested substantial effort in creating and improving measures of intelligence, and these tests are now the most accurate of all psychological tests.
In fact, the ability to accurately assess intelligence is one of the most important contributions of psychology to everyday public life. Intelligence changes with age.
A 3-year-old who could accurately multiply by 39 would certainly be intelligent, but a year-old who could not do so would be seen as unintelligent.
Thus understanding intelligence requires that we know the norms or standards in a given population of people at a given age. The standardization of a test involves giving it to a large number of people at different ages and computing the average score on the test at each age level.
It is important that intelligence tests be standardized on a regular basis, because the overall level of intelligence in a population may change over time.
The Flynn effect refers to the observation that scores on intelligence tests worldwide have increased substantially over the past decades Flynn, Although the increase varies somewhat from country to country, the average increase is about 3 IQ points every 10 years.
There are many explanations for the Flynn effect, including better nutrition, increased access to information, and more familiarity with multiple-choice tests Neisser, But whether people are actually getting smarter is debatable Neisser, A simple way to calculate IQ is by using the following formula: A number of scales are based on the IQ.
It consists of 15 different tasks, each designed to assess intelligence, including working memory, arithmetic ability, spatial ability, and general knowledge about the world see Figure 9.
The reliability of the test is high more than 0. The WAIS-IV is correlated highly with other IQ tests such as the Stanford-Binet, as well as with criteria of academic and life success, including college grades, measures of work performance, and occupational level.
It also shows significant correlations with measures of everyday functioning among the mentally retarded. Adapted from Thorndike, R. Cognitive Abilities Test Form 5: These aptitude tests also measure, in part, intelligence. Intelligence tests are also used by industrial and organizational psychologists in the process of personnel selection.
The psychologists begin by conducting a job analysis in which they determine what knowledge, skills, abilities, and personal characteristics KSAPs are required for a given job. Based on the results of the job analysis, the psychologists choose selection methods that are most likely to be predictive of job performance.
Measures include tests of cognitive and physical ability and job knowledge tests, as well as measures of IQ and personality. The Biology of Intelligence The brain processes underlying intelligence are not completely understood, but current research has focused on four potential factors: There is at least some truth to the idea that smarter people have bigger brains.
Studies that have measured brain volume using neuroimaging techniques find that larger brain size is correlated with intelligence McDaniel,and intelligence has also been found to be correlated with the number of neurons in the brain and with the thickness of the cortex Haier, ; Shaw et al.
It is important to remember that these correlational findings do not mean that having more brain volume causes higher intelligence. It is possible that growing up in a stimulating environment that rewards thinking and learning may lead to greater brain growth Garlick,and it is also possible that a third variable, such as better nutrition, causes both brain volume and intelligence.
Another possibility is that the brains of more intelligent people operate faster or more efficiently than the brains of the less intelligent.
And the brains of more intelligent people also seem to run faster than the brains of the less intelligent.Human intelligence - Development of intelligence: There have been a number of approaches to the study of the development of intelligence.
Psychometric theorists, for instance, have sought to understand how intelligence develops in terms of changes in intelligence factors and in various abilities in childhood. a test based on a theory of. Proposed by Howard Gardner in , the theory of multiple intelligences has revolutionized how we understand intelligence.
Learn more about the research behind his theory.
The theory of multiple intelligences differentiates human intelligence into specific 'modalities', People who are helped to do so, [he] believe[s], feel more engaged and competent and therefore more inclined to serve society in a constructive way." The triarchic mind: A new theory of .
Types of Intelligence and How to Find The One You Are Best In Being referred to or described as “intelligent” is probably one of the best compliments you can hope for. Certainly, people with high levels of intelligence are accorded a lot of respect and admiration. Human intelligence - Development of intelligence: There have been a number of approaches to the study of the development of intelligence.
Psychometric theorists, for instance, have sought to understand how intelligence develops in terms of changes in intelligence factors and in various abilities in childhood.
a test based on a theory of. In an essay of , words, critique the various theories of intelligence presented in class. Which theory do you believe is the best for determining intelligence?