Definition[ edit ] There is no universal definition of school bullying; however, it is widely agreed that bullying is a subcategory of aggressive behavior characterized by the following three minimum criteria: Gender inequality and the prevalence of violence against women in society exacerbate the problem. Similarly, social norms that support the authority of teachers over children may legitimise the use of violence to maintain discipline and control. If unchecked, gender discrimination and power imbalances in schools can encourage attitudes and practices that subjugate children, uphold unequal gender norms and tolerate violence, including corporal punishment.
Deborah Taub Professional school counselors can be more effective in their work with parents of students with disabilities — as well as with the students themselves, their teachers, and other students — if they understand parent perspectives. More than 6 million students with disabilities are enrolled in public schools National Education Association, n.
The role that school counselors play in the education of students with special needs is increasingly important Lockhart, As school counselors work with students with disabilities within their schools, they also frequently have the opportunity, or the need, to work with the parents of those students.
Professional school counselors can serve an important role as advocates for students with disabilities and their parents: Just as it is unwise to generalize about students as if all students were the same or about parents as if all parents or all families were the same, so it is unwise to generalize about all parents of children with special needs, making the assumption that they are all the same.
Not only is the range of special needs and disabling conditions vast, but parents and families also vary in their styles, concerns, approaches, values, involvement, and backgrounds.
Having said that, it is possible to articulate a set of issues and concerns that commonly arise for many parents of children with disabilities. Understanding these concerns will help school counselors be more effective in their work not only with parents of students with disabilities, but with the broader school community as well.
Grief, loss, and the "dream child" Not all children with special needs enter the educational system already identified as having a disability. Furthermore, a disability that is the result of an accident e.
This means that issues related to the labeling of the child as disabled may arise for parents at any level of schooling. Parents develop wishes, expectations, and dreams for their children, even before the child is born. The discovery that the wished-for child has a disability can be seen as destroying the hopes and dreams held by the parents.
School counselors can respond by forming parent support groups or referring parents to existing support groups, either school based or in the community. Such groups can normalize these and other concerns for parents and serve as a source of support and encouragement.
However, not all parents are able to attend or are interested in attending support groups.
There also may not be enough parents of students with disabilities within a school or a community to form a viable group. Such books also offer a way for school counselors to learn about the feelings and perspectives of a range of parents of children with disabilities and, therefore, to develop greater understanding and empathy for parents of children with disabilities.
Therefore, to an even greater extent than in the past, the parents of Millennial children with disabilities can be expected to be involved and concerned about the safety of their children. Ysseldyke, Algozzine, and Thurlow indicated that many parents of students with disabilities view schools as unsafe.
Concerns about safety at school can encompass a number of areas. Parents of children with disabilities may perceive that their children are more vulnerable to accidents and injuries as a result of their disabilities Quinn, They may worry, for instance, that their children with physical or sensory impairments are in danger of falling on stairways, on playgrounds, and in other parts of the school.
They may worry about the potential for injury while using equipment in the science laboratory, art room, or family and consumer science classroom. Field trips and transportation may present other opportunities for concerns about safety and injury. In addition, parents may be concerned that school personnel might inadvertently injure the student, due to a lack of knowledge about how to handle transfers in and out of a wheelchair, for example.
Furthermore, parents may be concerned that their children with disabilities may be bullied and injured by other students, with their disabilities making them both a more likely target and more vulnerable.
These concerns are more complicated for the parents of students with limited communication ability; parents may worry that such students will be unable to report injury or bullying to school personnel or to them.
In a study of adolescents with physical disabilities, Blum, Resnick, Nelson, and St. Germaine found that the adolescents "almost without exception" p. However, many of the adolescents in the study reported that they felt that their parents did not treat them in an age-appropriate manner, and about one-quarter perceived that their parents were overprotective in ways that the adolescents found objectionable.
It is important for the school counselor to respect these very real and serious parental concerns. An additional important role for school counselors working with parents of students with disabilities is to encourage parents to help their children develop independence by not overprotecting them.
Although making such adjustments may be difficult for parents, they can be helped to see that fostering independence is in the long-term best interests of the child.
It may be helpful to refer parents to the research literature, such as Blum et al. The Klein and Kemp book is a compilation of essays written by adults with disabilities especially for the parents of children with disabilities.
Attitudes of other parents and other children The number of students with disabilities included in general education classrooms continues to increase Sciarra, ; Ysseldyke et al.
Despite the movement toward classroom inclusion, many classmates without disabilities may have had little or no exposure to people with disabilities. The former may be curious or fearful or rejecting or respond in yet other ways.
As Sciarra stated, "Accurate information is one way of reducing bias in our schools and in the larger society" p. The question of whether the student with a disability should be present for the presentation or excused from the classroom may arise.The Columbine High School massacre was a school shooting that occurred on April 20, , at Columbine High School in Columbine, an unincorporated area of Jefferson County, Colorado, United States, in the Denver metropolitan pfmlures.com addition to the shootings, the complex and highly planned attack involved a fire bomb to divert .
The absence of an accepted definition and the use of differing terms such as aggression, violence, abuse, bullying, or rivalry, has been a barrier to investigation on sibling aggression.1, 7, 30 Whenever possible, we focus on sibling bullying, which is a form of aggression between siblings that involves direct or indirect intentional and persistent .
Massachusetts Trial Court Law Libraries posts links to state laws and other resources on bullying and cyberbullying.
pfmlures.comonal Resources: Keeping Students with Disabilities Safe from Bullying The Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) issued guidance to educators and stakeholders on the matter of bullying of students with disabilities.
Below is a quote from one of our athletes who is a 16 year-old high school quarterback who loved football and had the potential to start as a freshman — until the coach destroyed his mental game Going into high school I was a standout athlete with high confidence but after my .
The Columbine High School massacre was a school shooting that occurred on April 20, , at Columbine High School in Columbine, an unincorporated area of Jefferson County (Jeffco), Colorado, United States, near Littleton in the Denver metropolitan area.
The perpetrators, twelfth grade students Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, murdered 12 students and one teacher. I want to start this article by doing a little thought experiment.
Imagine for a moment that you are in a group of twenty people. In that twenty people there is a defined leader and that leader is responsible for motivating you, teaching you, .