The crisis has further polarized former Soviet states into pro-Russian, pro-Western and neutral camps. However, given the sharp political, economic and security changes many of these countries have faced since independence, and the evolving demographic and cultural landscape of the region, the broader foreign policy orientation of the former Soviet states is far from set in stone. After the Soviet Union collapsed at the end of15 new countries emerged.
The Russian Revolution Late tsarist Russia Sometime in the middle of the 19th century, Russia entered a phase of internal crisis that in would culminate in revolution.
Its causes were not so much economic or social as political and cultural. For the sake of stability, tsarism insisted on rigid autocracy that effectively shut out the population from participation in government. At the same time, to maintain its status as a great power, it promoted industrial development and higher educationwhich were inherently dynamic.
|Search Mises Daily||Uzbekistan The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union FSU  or former Soviet Republics, and in Russian as the "near abroad" discussed below are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup inwith Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.|
|The Former Soviet Union Two Decades On||No lyrics from to Revised lyrics from to|
|Milestones: – - Office of the Historian||This was the self-proclaimed republic of Abkhazia, a subtropical breakaway territory of post-Soviet Georgia located along the Black Sea coast. However, in order to fully understand what is happening in Abkhazia now, a brief background of the region is required.|
|Accessibility links||Nationalist revanchism has been gaining momentum in recent years among various political groups in Russia and has been greeted with some sympathy from the Kremlin. In the past, this sentiment has taken the form of open calls for the restoration of the Soviet Union, but recently a more provocative set of ideas have been making the rounds in Russia.|
|The frenzy has been promoted by war hawks in both major parties, bolstering their bellicosity.|
The result was perpetual tension between government and society, especially its educated element, known as the intelligentsia. Potentially destabilizing also was the refusal of the mass of Russian peasantryliving in communes, to acknowledge the principle of private property in land.
The Soviet Estimate: U.S. Analysis of the Soviet Union, here for the first time is the Pentagon's Top Secret 1,page internal history of the United States-Soviet Union arms race. The Soviet 4/25/91 CIA, Office of Soviet Analysis The Soviet Cauldron. . With the dissolution of Soviet Union, the main goal of the Bush administration was economic and political stability and security for Russia, the Baltics, and the states of the former Soviet Union. Bush recognized all 12 independent republics and established diplomatic relations with Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. U.S. Analysis of the Soviet Union, On December 25, , Mikhail Gorbachev, having weathered a dramatic coup attempt earlier that year, resigned the presidency of the Soviet Union, bringing to an end that nation's existence.
In the late 19th century the political conflict pitted three protagonists: The tsar was absolute and unlimited in his authority, which was subject to neither constitutional restraints nor parliamentary institutions. He ruled with the help of a bureaucratic caste, subject to no external controls and above the law, and the army, one of whose main tasks was maintaining internal order.
Imperial Russia developed to a greater extent than any contemporary country a powerful and ubiquitous security police. It was a crime to question the existing system or to organize for any purpose whatsoever without government permission. The system, which contained seeds of future totalitarianismwas nevertheless not rigidly enforced and was limited by the institution of private property.
The vast majority of Russian peasants lived in communes obshchinywhich held land in common and periodically redistributed it to member households to allow for changes in family size. The communal organization, composed of heads of households, exercised great control over members. Communal peasants did not own their land but merely cultivated it for a period of time determined by local custom.
Under these conditions they had little opportunity to develop respect for private property or any of the other qualities necessary for citizenship.
Politically they tended toward primitive anarchism. To some extent this also held true for industrial workers, some two million strong at the turn of the century, most of whom came from the village. The intelligentsia was partly liberal, partly radical, but in either case unalterably opposed to the status quo.
Having met with no response, they adopted methods of terror, which culminated in in the assassination of Emperor Alexander II. The government reacted with repressive measures that kept the revolutionaries at bay for the next two decades. In the meantime the field was left to liberal intellectuals, who in January formed the Union of Liberationa semilegal political body committed to the struggle for democracy.
The oppositional groups received their chance in —05 when Russia became involved in a war with Japan. The Union of Liberation, moving into the open, presented a program of fundamental political reforms. On October 17 October 30, New Stylefaced with a general strikeEmperor Nicholas II issued a manifesto that promised the country a legislative parliament.
The October Manifesto in effect ended the autocratic system. The following year Russia was given a constitution. Elections took place to a representative body, the State Dumawhich was empowered to initiate and veto legislative proposals. The population received guarantees of fundamental civil liberties.The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist federation in Eurasia that existed from to Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, [d] its government and economy were highly centralized.
An analysis of the Soviet economic growth from the ’s to the collapse of USSR*. (Second draft) organ in the Soviet Union was the Gosplan (State Planning Commission). The Gosplan States (and also China after )2. This militarization of the economy had strong. This was the catalyst for the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Other former Soviet states followed suit and declared their independence. Ironically, the classic Cold War villain, the USSR, gives one of the best contemporary examples of peaceful secession.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, and in Russian as the "near abroad" (discussed below) are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in , with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
The fifteenth installment of the Reconsidering Russia podcast series features celebrated American Ambassador Jack F.
Matlock, Jr. In this wide-ranging interview, Ambassador Matlock discusses his life and career. analysis, Former Soviet Union, history, interview geopolitics, interview, NATO, Russia, United States | Tagged former soviet.
The Soviet Estimate: U.S. Analysis of the Soviet Union, here for the first time is the Pentagon's Top Secret 1,page internal history of the United States-Soviet Union arms race. The Soviet 4/25/91 CIA, Office of Soviet Analysis The Soviet Cauldron.